Treatment Methods For Lung Cancer

Cancer therapies serve the purpose of curing the patient of the disease (“curative” = healing therapy) or to stop the further growth and spread of the tumor as long as possible, to relieve discomfort, and to prolong the lifetime (“palliative” = alleviative) Therapy). An indispensable component of oncological care is the so-called “supportive therapy” (supportive therapy). It treats and prevents complications of cancer and survival-related but often aggressive cancer therapies.

How is lung cancer operated?

If the tumor has not exceeded a certain size and has not yet formed distant metastases, surgery is sought with the aim of completely removing the tumor tissue and the lymph nodes affected by tumor cells. The operation plays an important role especially in non-small cell lung cancer – as small cell lung cancer is often diagnosed at a later stage, then other treatments are in the foreground.

The surgical procedure is preceded by extensive research. In particular, it must be ensured that after the removal of part of the lung, the remaining lung sections are able to sufficiently take over the respiratory function. Condition for the operation is a good general condition of the patient; Severe comorbidities often rule out surgery. Furthermore, removal of the tumor should not pose a risk to neighboring vital organs such as large blood vessels or the esophagus. If the expected burdens and restrictions are too great, a different therapy strategy must be chosen.

During surgery, the tumor-bearing lung section and the adjacent lymph nodes are removed. The most common procedure is the removal of a lung lobe (lobectomy). With very large tumors the removal of an entire lung wing may be necessary (pneumectomy). In many cases, however, it is possible to avoid the removal of the entire lung through special, organ-preserving surgical techniques.

Possible side effects:

As a result of the operation, the available breathing area of ​​the patient is reduced. However, if the lung function before surgery is sufficient, it will not be a major problem for the patient, and he will usually be able to compensate well for the loss of lung tissue. Special breathing exercises in rehabilitation also help to improve lung performance after tumor therapy. The first exercises can already be learned in the clinic under the guidance of a physiotherapist and later be continued at home. For smokers, however, should stop smoking immediately before the operation to improve their lung function.

What happens during irradiation?

Radiation therapy is the only therapy for non-small cell lung cancer in stages I and II when surgery is not possible and for selected patients in stage III. Otherwise, it is usually combined with chemotherapy in patients with stage III and small cell lung cancer. If cancer has secondary tumors, called metastases, in other organs such as the brain or the bones, they may also be irradiated.

The high-energy ionizing radiation, which is directed from the outside to the tumor, destroys the cancer cells. The total radiation dose is divided into several single doses, which are administered about five times a week. In the so-called hypofractionated radiation, which can be used in lung cancer, is even twice a day at intervals of several hours, but then irradiated with lower single doses.

In addition to conventional radiotherapy, the so-called stereotactic radiotherapy is also used. Here, the disease is in a few sessions, sometimes in only one, irradiated with a high dose of radiation. This is possible because the beams are directed to the target area from different directions after computer-controlled irradiation planning. There, all the rays meet at one point and add up to the total dose, which is thus maximum at the site of the disease, while the surrounding healthy tissue is largely spared. For this reason, stereotactic radiotherapy is particularly well suited for small tumors and tumors in delicate environments, such as brain metastases.

Possible Side Effects

Side effects of radiotherapy may be hoarseness and difficulty swallowing. The skin is also sensitive to the treatment. In combination with chemotherapy in particular, mucous membrane inflammation and fungal infections can occur in the oral cavity. A late consequence is pneumonitis, an inflammation of the irradiated lung tissue. Overall, the severity of side effects depends on the type and intensity of the radiation used.

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How does chemotherapy work?

Chemotherapy uses cell-growth-inhibiting drugs known as cytostatics. They act primarily against fast-growing cells and thus especially against cancer cells. For the treatment of lung cancer several chemotherapeutic drugs are available, which are selected according to individual requirements.

Which medicines are used depends on various factors, including the stage of the disease, the general condition, and concomitant diseases. Usually, two or three substances are combined, with cisplatin or carboplatin as the basic drug in most cases. Commonly used cytostatic drugs in non-small cell lung carcinoma include cisplatin, carboplatin, vinorelbine, docetaxel, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, pemetrexed and etoposide, small cell lung carcinoma cisplatin, carboplatin, bendamustine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, etoposide, irinotecan, paclitaxel, topotecan and vinca alkaloids such as vincristine.

Possible side effects:

Chemotherapy affects all rapidly dividing lines. These include not only the malignant cancer cells but also healthy cells such as the mucous membrane cells of the digestive tract and the hair root cells. The most common side effects of chemotherapy include nausea, diarrhea, mouth sores, and hair loss. Red blood and white blood cells may also be reduced during chemotherapy, leading to anemia and increased susceptibility to infection. In addition, the various cytotoxic drugs can each cause specific side effects. A good education, as well as preventive and accompanying (supportive) medications, can avoid or at least alleviate many side effects. As a rule, they stop when the chemotherapy is over.

Which targeted medical therapies are used?

Novel therapeutic approaches, termed “targeted therapy,” are designed to target cancer cells exclusively or preferentially. The active ingredients are directed, for example, against factors that promote tumor growth, they prevent the blood supply to the tumor, repair defects in the genome or eliminate their consequences or prevent the signal transmission between tumor cells, so that cell division and growth signals are absent. Targeted therapies are currently used exclusively in advanced (metastatic) non-small cell lung cancer, because good efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in small cell lung cancer. Since intensive research is being carried out in this field, it can be expected that more targeted substances will be approved for the treatment of lung cancer in the near future.

The tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor)

Activating genetic alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cause tyrosine kinases, located in the cell interior of the receptor, to activate a signaling chain that promotes the division of the cancer cells and their multiplication. The EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors can stop this. The tiny molecules penetrate the cells through the cell wall and occupy the internal part of the EGF receptor. This breaks the signal chain for cell division and slows down the proliferation of cancer cells.

Currently, three EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are approved for the treatment of lung cancer: erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib. These medicines are available in tablet form. The therapy can therefore be performed by the patients at home, which for many means a gain in quality of life. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibits the progression of the disease and alleviates symptoms.

Possible side effects:

Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors are well tolerated compared to chemotherapy, they are not side effects. A common side effect is the appearance of an acne-like rash on the face and upper body, also called Rash. It can be a sign that the medication works well. Other typical side effects include diarrhea, concomitant weight loss, and prolonged fatigue. Preventive concomitant therapy for rash and diarrhea is recommended.

Drugs for resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors

Tumors can become resistant to the therapy with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ie resistant. In the majority of cases, it is the so-called gatekeeper mutation T790M. It causes the tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the first (gefitinib, erlotinib) and second-generation (afatinib) to be displaced from binding to the tyrosine kinase and unable to inhibit the growth factor. A novel EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively acts even when a T790M mutation is present is osimertinib. It is given in tablet form.

Possible side effects:

The most common side effects with osimertinib therapy are diarrhea, exanthematic rash, nausea, loss of appetite, and constipation. These side effects are significantly less pronounced than with the first and second-generation drugs (gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib).

EGFR antibody

Although cancer cells on their surface form the “normal” (wild-type) EGF receptor, as is sometimes the case with squamous cell carcinomas of non-small cell lung cancer, cell division is increasingly initiated and tumor growth promoted. In this case, a combination of the chemotherapeutic agents cisplatin/gemcitabine and the anti-EGFR antibody necitumumab may be worthwhile. If this therapy starts and is well tolerated, maintenance therapy with necitumumab is possible. The side effects of Necitumumab are similar to those of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors but more pronounced in their severity than in the first and second generation of active agents.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors of ALK and ROS1 kinases

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors of this group of drugs are directed against proteins in the cell that stimulate cell growth. The binding of the active ingredients to the proteins blocks certain signaling pathways and restricts uncontrolled cell growth in the tumor. For example, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib is approved for the first and second treatment (after chemotherapy) of patients with ALK translocation. Second-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors are alectinib and ceritinib. They have an even more specific effect on ALK kinase. Other effective ALK inhibitors currently being tested in studies are Brigatinib and Lorlatinib.

Rarer than ALK translocations are activating ROS1 translocations. The affected patients can be treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib in the first therapy. A newer ROS1 inhibitor is lorlatinib.

Possible side effects:

ALK and ROS1 kinase inhibitors can also cause side effects, with each drug having its own specific side-effect profile. Often liver dysfunction, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and prolonged fatigue, but also visual disturbances and taste changes may occur.

Angiogenesis Inhibitors

Angiogenesis means the formation of blood vessels. These blood vessels are needed by the tumor to supply themselves with oxygen and nutrients. Ultimately, angiogenesis thus supports tumor growth and the spread of the tumor in the body.

Angiogenesis inhibitors hinder the blood supply to tumors by blocking the vascular cell growth factor VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor). Studies have shown that cancer cells grow less and that given chemotherapies work better. Such angiogenesis inhibitors are bevacizumab, ramucirumab, and nintedanib. Bevacizumab may be used in patients with metastatic (stage IV) non-small cell non-epithelial lung carcinoma in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy for initial treatment. Ramucirumab (regardless of tumor type) and nintedanib (adenocarcinoma only) are used in patients undergoing second-line therapy in combination with docetaxel chemotherapy if relapses have occurred.

Possible side effects:

Patients with bevacizumab have an increased risk of bleeding and therefore good monitoring is essential. Often, high blood pressure occurs. Other typical but less common side effects include blood vessel obstruction (embolism), increased urinary protein excretion, and wound healing disorders. Common side effects of ramucirumab in combination with docetaxel are a lack of white blood cells with and without fever (neutropenia and febrile neutropenia), persistent fatigue and hypertension, and the side effects described with bevacizumab. The side effects of nintedanib are similar, with side effects such as EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Other targeted agents

One to two percent of all non-small cell lung carcinomas has BRAF mutations, about half of which are V600E alterations. The BRAF gene produces a protein (B-Raf), which is involved in the normal growth and survival of cells as an important component of the so-called mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Changes in the gene can cause this signaling pathway to becoming overly active, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and cancer. So-called BRAF inhibitors can stop this. However, experience has shown that tumors develop rapid resistance to BRAF inhibitors. However, inhibiting the so-called MEK kinases 1 and 2 in the MAP kinase pathway simultaneously with BRAF inhibition effectively prevents the development of resistance. Preliminary study results indicate that good response rates and disease control rates are achieved in multiple-chemotherapy patients with the progressive disease by combining the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib with the MEK inhibitor trametinib.

Nearly one-third of all patients who do not have a KRAS, ALK, ROS, or EGFR mutation in the tumor have RET mutations. In this case, therapy with cabozantinib can be beneficial. Around two percent of all adenocarcinomas of non-small cell lung cancer show changes in the HER2 receptor. Affected patients often respond well to HER2 inhibitors such as trastuzumab or afatinib. For MET amplification and/or MET mutations, MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as capmatinib may be used.

Activate the immune system: immunotherapies

Activating one’s own immune system in such a way that it recognizes the tumor as “ill/foreign” and fights it is the goal of immunotherapy. Cancer cells can escape the natural immune defense, such as by losing their tumor-specific antigens, by which they would recognize the immune system as sick, by mutations, inhibit the activity of immune cells or manipulate so-called immune checkpoints. The latter regulates the intensity and quality of the activity of so-called T cells of the immune system. In lung cancer, the PD-1 checkpoint plays an important role. The PD1 receptor is typically produced on T cells of the immune system, the associated “ligand” PD-L1 of dendritic cells of the immune system, but also of cancer cells. When PD-L1 binds to its PD-1 receptor on the T cells, they are inactivated. If the tumor cells now release more PD-L1 themselves, they can escape the clutches of the immune system because they “paralyze” the T-cells. If the immune checkpoint PD-1 or PD-L1 is blocked by so-called PD-1 inhibitors such as pembrolizumab or nivolumab or PD-L1 inhibitors such as atezolizumab, its damaging effect on the immune cells is eliminated – these become active and fight the tumor cells.

Pembrolizumab may be used as the sole treatment for chemotherapy in patients with metastatic stage IV non-small cell lung cancer with> 50% PD-L1 expression and no EGFR and ALK alterations of tumor cells. In second-line therapy, when metastatic non-small cell lung cancer continues to grow or return despite therapy, immunotherapy with nivolumab, pembrolizumab (> 1% PD-LD1 expression) may be initiated.

Possible side effects:

In addition to fatigue, loss of appetite, and general weakness, the PD-1, and PD-L1 blocker therapy can be associated with side effects related to the immune system, such as disorders of thyroid function, pneumonia, hepatitis, and renal dysfunction. Also, side effects on the skin are possible, for example, rash, itching, and vitiligo (white spot disease). In addition, diarrhea can occur as a result of colitis.

Treatment of bone metastases

Lung tumors tend to form secondary tumors in the bones. These can cause significant pain and increase the risk of fractures. Single bone metastases can be removed by surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. In addition, the administration of substances that inhibit bone loss, so-called bisphosphonates, reduces the risk of complications, alleviating pain. Another group of drugs used to treat bone metastases are so-called targeted therapies. In Germany, the antibody denosumab from this group is approved. It binds itself in the body specifically to a protein called RANKL, which normally activates bone-degrading cells. When denosumab blocks RANKL, bone-degrading cell activity diminishes, bone mass is retained and fractures become less common.

Supportive

The medical care of cancer patients is not only the antitumoral therapy, the cure, or cancer as long as possible to push back – an integral part is also the so-called supportive therapy. Irrespective of the stage of the tumor, it ensures that cancer patients do not suffer too much from the complications of cancer and as well as possible tolerate the survival-related but often aggressive tumor therapies. The catalog of measures for possible supportive therapies is long; Prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting are also included, such as the treatment of anemia and missing white blood cells (neutropenia), the prevention of infections, the prevention, and treatment of oral mucosal inflammation and the prevention and treatment of skin manifestations.

Palliative Therapy

When lung cancer is too advanced, therapy is no longer focused on healing, but on relieving tumor-related symptoms and maintaining the quality of life for patients and their relatives. This includes not only the prevention and treatment of pain and other physical ailments but also assistance and therapy in psychosocial stress situations and problems that may be associated with cancer. In the case of physical symptoms, respiratory distress and pain are most prominent for lung cancer patients with advanced disease. They can be well-alleviated in many cases with the medicines and methods available today. Even if certain standards play a role in this, the therapy is always individually tailored to the patient’s situation.

Lung Cancer Centers

The treatment of lung cancer is complex and requires the cooperation of specialists of different disciplines. In addition, research into new therapies is in constant flux. In order to be able to guarantee optimal treatment for lung cancer patients based on the latest scientific findings and treatment guidelines, so-called lung cancer centers are being certified by the German Cancer Society. For certification, the facilities must meet strict standards, e.g. a minimum number of qualified specialists and a minimum number of lung cancer patients treated there each year. Only then can the centers gain sufficient experience with the disease and constantly expand it. The treatment in the lung cancer center is interdisciplinary by pulmonary specialists, thoracic surgeons, radiation therapists, oncologists, pathologists, and radiologists. They participate in regular tumor conferences, where individual treatment plans are developed for each patient. The treatment team is supplemented by psycho-oncologists, social workers, pastoral workers, and physiotherapists.

 

Source:

Esche B., Geiseler J. & Karg O. (ed.): Pulmonology. Textbook for Respiratory Therapists. German Society for Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine e.V. Berlin 2016

Griesinger F & Heukamp L. What’s hot in lung cancer. TumorDiagn u Ther 2016;37:1–7

Improve Lung Function With Nutrition

If you want to do something good for your lungs, you should regularly eat plenty of apples and tomatoes. These two foods seem to have a particularly positive effect on lung health. They inhibit the natural aging process of the lungs and allow the lungs of former smokers to recover much faster. In addition to apples and tomatoes, other foods have been found to help the lungs in the past. There are also foods that should not be eaten for the sake of the lungs.

High fiber foods protect the lungs

The type of diet enormously influences the state of health of the individual organs. This is evident in the organs of the digestive system. After all, they come into direct contact with food. In the lungs, however, one can hardly imagine that these organs could be happy about fiber, for example. But that’s exactly the case:

People who eat high-fiber foods are more likely to have healthy lung function than low-fiber people, as we’ve already reported here: fiber protects the lungs, and you’ll also find a list of the best fiber suppliers.

Foods with beta-cryptoxanthin reduce lung cancer risk

And it’s not just fiber that’s good for the lungs. Even foods containing the so-called beta-cryptoxanthin seem to have an extremely positive effect on the lungs, as a study from November 2016 had shown. The substance is found in all red and orange vegetables and fruits and reduces the risk of lung cancer. Details and the corresponding food can be found here: Plant substance reduces lung cancer risk

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Apples, tomatoes, and bananas promote the repair of the lungs

Apples, tomatoes, and other antioxidant-rich foods also help to keep the lungs healthy, and even make sure that damaged lungs can recover faster – as reported by the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health in December 2017 at the European Respiratory Journal announced.

In their study, scientists looked at the nutrition and lung function of more than 650 adults – once in 2002 and then ten years later in 2012. Participants came from Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom.

The more tomatoes, the better the lung functions

Anyone who had once smoked could slow down the natural aging process of his lungs if he followed a diet rich in vegetables and fruits. Especially tomatoes, bananas, and apples proved to be helpful in the investigation. These foods appear to contain special substances that also contributed to a faster recovery of the tobacco-damaged lungs after smoking cessation.

But also for people who had never smoked, a healthier lung function could be observed, if they had eaten the said food regularly. Yes, the more tomatoes the participants had on the diet, the better.

And because the condition of the lungs is closely correlated with the risk of death – be it through chronic lung disease, heart disease, lung cancer or other diseases – the increased consumption of tomatoes is certainly a very good idea. Read also: Drink for lung cleansing.

Only fresh fruits and vegetables work

However, it is not enough to eat a tomato or an apple now and then. You should consume more than two tomatoes per day or more than three servings of fresh fruits per day to achieve the mentioned benefits (1 serving = 80 g). Also processed tomato products, eg. B. tomato sauce from the glass or fruit from the can did not have a corresponding effect. Only fresh fruits and vegetables had a positive impact on lung health.

Nutrition advice for lung patients and risk groups recommended

Study author Dr. Vanessa Garcia-Larsen said the results showed the need for nutritional recommendations, especially for high-risk groups. People with weakened lungs or first signs of certain lung diseases, such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), should therefore be given appropriate nutritional advice.

More often eat foods that help with repair of the lungs

Already at the age of about thirty the lung functions begin to weaken – depending on the general condition of the person. If you eat many fruits and vegetables, you can slow down the age-related worsening of lung function and better repair lung damage such as smoking.

“Nutrition, as we now know, is an important way to combat increasingly common COPD diseases,” concludes Garcia-Larsen.

Further information on the positive effects of a healthy diet on lung health can be found here: Healthy diet protects against smoker’s cough. Important is here u. a. that sugar and white flour products as well as foods with a high glycemic load (= foods that cause high blood sugar levels) should be avoided.

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Stage 4 Lung Cancer

To assist physicians in deciding what type of treatment is more appropriate for lung cancer, there is a recognized numerical staging system that creates benchmarks. At Stage I, the cancer is small and localized in a specific area of ​​the lung. During phases 2 and 3, the cancer grows and spreads to the surrounding tissue and possibly the lymph nodes.

Stage 4 lung cancer is when the cancer has spread, or metastised, from the lungs to other parts of the body. Typically, the cancer spreads to the liver, bones, brain or adrenal glands. This is commonly known as secondary or advanced cancer. About 40% of lung cancer patients are diagnosed at stage 4, mainly because the symptoms of lung cancer could include symptoms of other diseases. In Stage 4, the cancer is not curable, but it can be treated. These are some of the symptoms that may help your doctor to diagnose stage 4 lung cancer.

Breathing problems

Lung cancer patients often present with shortness of breath, wheezing and hoarseness. It is often a persistent cough, and the patient can cough up blood. Sometimes, a chronic cough that the patient may suddenly change for some time may be natural. Because these symptoms may also affect other conditions, they are not sufficient to suggest a diagnosis of lung cancer. However, if a smoker presents with these symptoms, a diagnosis of stage 4 lung cancer is likely to be considered by the doctor.

Pain

Patients may experience pain in various areas of the upper body, including the back, chest, arms, ribs and hips. Deep breathing often intensifies the pain that can be felt in the tissues or bones depending on the spread of the cancer. It can also be pain when swallowing. Some people suffer from frequent headaches, which is an indication that the cancer could be affecting the brain.

Weight Loss

With stage 4 lung cancer, there is often a sudden, unexplained weight loss that is often accompanied by loss of appetite and a general feeling of weakness and fatigue. If this weight loss is significant and you do not have a diet, it should be investigated.

“Clubbing”

The nails on the fingers and toes can bulge, and the ends of the fingers change shape. This symptom usually develops in the latter stages of lung cancer, so it is a good indicator of diagnosis.

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Diagnosis

The diagnostic process for stage 4 lung cancer is usually some form of imaging, such as computed tomography (CAT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These scans give a detailed picture of the spread of the cancer as X-rays, allowing the doctor to determine the cancerous stage. A radionuclide scan can detect if the cancer has spread to other organs, while a bone scan will show if the bones are affected.

The doctor may also conduct tests to determine if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. This involves removing a tissue sample for testing under general anesthesia. This process is called medias or mediastinotomy, depending on whether the tissue is absorbed by the neck or the chest.

While all these symptoms refer to other conditions, if you experience one or more of them for two weeks or more, you should consult your doctor. Lung cancer is particularly dangerous because it metastises to other parts of the body relatively quickly, making it one of the most life-threatening cancers there is. As with most conditions, the earlier the diagnosis, the more likely that the treatment will succeed. During treatment for stage 4 lung cancer, the condition will not heal, it can prolong life and improve quality of life, so it is important to seek medical advice as soon as possible.

What are The Symptoms Of Lungs Cancer, Treatment & Prognosis

Lung cancer is a malignant neoplasm in the respiratory system (lungs and bronchi). In addition to breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer, it is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Unfortunately, the number of illnesses continues to increase, especially among women.

Short version:

    • Smoking causes 85% of lung cancers.
    • Lung cancer is caused by a change in the genetic material due to chronic damage.
    • Lung carcinomas can be divided into two groups.
    • Because symptoms are unrecognized or misinterpreted, lung cancer is often discovered by accident during examinations.
    • The treatment of a lung tumor depends on the type of cancer.

In Austria, around 2,500 men and almost 1,200 women suffer from bronchial carcinoma each year. Thus lung cancer is second only to prostate cancer in males and third in women after breast and colon cancer. Most cases are detected between the 55th and the 65th year of life. However, patients can be significantly younger.

The main risk factor for the development of lung cancer is cigarette smoking: Around 85% of all cases can be attributed to tobacco consumption. Hereditary predispositions or contact with other harmful substances (such as arsenic, radon or asbestos), on the other hand, play a subordinate role. 3-5% of the diseases are caused by passive smoking.

From surgery to Targeted Therapy: Depending on the type and stage, lung cancer is treated differently.

Anyone smoking a pack of cigarettes every day for over 20 years increases their lung cancer risk 30 to 40 times. By contrast, a familial accumulation only leads to a doubling or tripling of the risk.

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How does lung cancer develop?

In the cells of the mucous membranes of the bronchi and in the alveoli, there is a change in the genetic material due to prolonged chronic damage (for example, chronic inflammation from cigarette smoke). After a long time, this change means that the normal control mechanisms for the growth and death of cells are no longer effective and a malignant tumor develops. At an early stage of development, this process can sometimes be reversed, such as when the damaging effects are stopped.

Basically, two groups of lung cancer are differentiated:

    1. Non-small cell lung carcinoma

The non-small cell type accounts for around three quarters of cancers of the lung. It is roughly subdivided into:

    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • the adenocarcinoma
    • the large cell carcinoma
    1. Small cell lung carcinoma

Small cell lung cancer (about 20% of the disease) spreads rapidly through the bloodstream and lymphatics, but is better for chemotherapy.

This distinction is important from a medical point of view, because the therapy is targeted accordingly.

Which symptoms occur?

In those cases of lung cancer that are discovered at an early stage, these are generally incidental findings: pulmonary x-raying is actually done for quite different reasons, e.g. in case of release for surgical procedures or severe infections suggesting pneumonia.

The most significant problem is that the disease remains asymptomatic for a long time. Often, the typical symptoms, such as coughing, shortness of breath, fatigue or back pain, misinterpreted or ignored. Since the majority of sufferers are smokers with chronic bronchitis and often have cardiovascular problems, the symptoms are attributed to them.

A doctor’s visit is therefore often delayed for a long time. Only the appearance of blood in the sputum or severe weight loss are alarming. More than two-thirds of all cases of lung cancer are therefore diagnosed at a local or systemic (i.e., distant metastasis) stage.

Unfortunately, previous large-scale studies on the possibility of early diagnosis have not shown sufficiently satisfactory results to be meaningful to broad sections of the population. A so-called spiral computed tomography (spiral CT) with low radiation dose is therefore recommended as a preventive check only certain risk groups: chronic smokers over 50 years, especially if at the same time a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is present; in addition, in the case of lung cancer in the family or a workplace that is burdened by inhaled carcinogens (carcinogenic substances). However, the last two factors only seem relevant if the person smokes himself at the same time.

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How does the doctor make a diagnosis?

If lung cancer is suspected, the patient is referred to a specialized department where a complete examination is made as soon as possible. Among other things, the stage of the disease, the type of tumor and the spread in the body is examined.

For this purpose, different examination methods such as computed tomography, ultrasound, biopsy or a PET scan are performed.

Which treatment methods are available?

The choice of treatment for lung cancer depends largely on the type of cancer and the stage of the cancer.

Treatment options range from surgery to radiation and chemotherapy, to molecular biology therapy.

What is the prognosis for lung cancer?

In contrast to other types of cancer, in the case of bronchial carcinoma, there are no meaningful early detection measures or long-term successful treatment methods. Lung cancer is the only cancer in which the rate of new disease is nearly identical to that of deaths.

Taking all the cases together, current treatment methods achieve a 5-year survival rate of only 15%. However, when early-stage non-small cell lung cancer is detected, around 75 out of every 100 people treated surgically are still alive five years later.

At the same time, lung cancer is virtually the only cancer that has a prevalent and avoidable risk factor. Prevention through smoking cessation is therefore at the forefront.

Especially in the case of lung cancer, it must be emphasized how important it is to participate in the clinical trials offered, as it provides access to new drugs that are not yet on the market, and one can expect further improvements. Moreover, it is only possible to further advance the progress in the treatment of this problematic disease.

As regards therapy, great progress has been made in all areas in recent years. It has become much better in terms of effectiveness and tolerability. This leads to an improvement in quality of life, lifespan and a reduction in side effects.

What can i do on my own?

If you are a smoker, stop as soon as possible!

There are studies showing that certain drugs used to treat lung cancer are less effective when smoked during treatment. The effect of radiation therapy is also disturbed, and surgery increases the rate of complications.

In addition, it is known that patients who have undergone successful surgery have a higher risk of developing another lung cancer if they continue to consume nicotine than those who have quit smoking.

In addition, of course, all health care measures are also useful in the case of this disease: such as vitamin and fiber rich diet with restriction of sugar and fat content and sufficient exercise in the fresh air.

Does Beta-Carotene Cause Lung Cancer?

Many years ago, a study was published in which smokers were given beta-carotene – for the prevention of lung cancer. But then they did not get sick less often, but even more often with lung cancer. Once this unpleasant side effect was noticed, the study was stopped immediately and smokers were advised to stop taking beta-carotene. Meanwhile, however, it has come to the point where some people believe that dietary beta carotene (such as carrots) is harmful and can cause lung cancer. We explain how it behaves.

What is beta-carotene?

Beta carotene is a phytochemical in the carotenoid family. Carotenoids in turn are fat-soluble plant substances with yellow to red coloring. A diet rich in carotenoids is therefore used when the diet contains a high proportion of yellow and orange or even red vegetables.

Beta carotene is the best known carotenoid. Hardly any other food is as rich as it is in carrots and kale. Although green cabbage is green and not yellow or orange, the green of chlorophyll covers the orange tones of beta-carotene.

Which carotenoids are there?

Other carotenoids are, for example

    • the alpha carotene (eg in pumpkin and carrots),
    • Lycopene (especially in tomatoes),
    • the betacryptoxanthin (eg in pumpkin and red pepper),
    • lutein (eg in savoy cabbage, parsley and kale),
    • Astaxanthin (produced by algae) and
    • the zeaxanthin (eg in red pepper).

All of them are considered to be powerful antioxidants that fight free radicals and oxidative stress and can thus prevent many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, rheumatic diseases, eye diseases, as well as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s and cancer.

does-beta-carotene-cause-lung-cancer

Does beta carotene protect against lung cancer?

As late as the 1980s, beta carotene was considered very healthy by all people – whether they were smokers or not. In 1986, even a study on this topic appeared (1,266 participants). They found that smokers who did not eat carrots had a three-fold higher risk of lung cancer than smokers who ate carrots at least once a week. A significantly increased risk of lung cancer also existed for those who only liked a little green leafy vegetables. Liver and cheese (vitamin A) did not appear to have a protective effect because those who did not have either had no increased risk of ever developing lung cancer.

Another study (1,663 participants) in the same year showed similar, namely that a carotenoid-rich diet, in particular smokers protected against lung cancer.

But who wants to bother with all the vegetables? So at least the thought of many smokers, who on the whole rather seldom eat health-conscious. However, since lung cancer is a desirable target for her and smoking cessation is rarely up for debate, the obvious solution was: why not simply take a beta-carotene pill every day? Because it was known that a high level of beta-carotene in the blood reduced the risk of lung cancer. So you could safely take the beta carotene in pill form.

Betacarotin in pill form increases the risk of lung cancer

In 1996, a study on beta-carotene pills, published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, was quickly launched. More than 29,000 men between the ages of 50 and 69 who smoked more than 5 cigarettes a day took 50 mg of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol ), 20 mg beta carotene, or both, or a placebo supplement for an average of 6 years.

Regarding vitamin E, there was no effect on lung cancer risk. Beta-carotene, however, appeared to increase lung cancer risk (but only slightly), especially in heavy smokers (more than 20 cigarettes per day) compared to smokers who smoked less. Even in men who also indulged in a higher alcohol consumption, was due to the beta carotene intake an increased risk of lung cancer.

Study stop because of frequent lung cancer cases

Similar results were obtained by the so-called CARET study, which was published in the same year. Here, over 18,000 participants were given 30 mg beta-carotene daily and 25,000 IU vitamin A or placebo. The study had to be stopped after just 21 months, as the beta carotene group had 28 percent more lung cancers and 17 percent more deaths. The participants of the study were smokers, former smokers or asbestos workers, ie all those with a high risk of lung cancer.

At the same time there were also studies that did not show any disadvantages after taking beta-carotene, such as the study that also appeared in 1996 (in the New England Journal of Medicine) and found that:

Beta-carotene in pill form does not always harm

More than 22,000 healthy men between the ages of 40 and 84 took 50 mg beta-carotene or placebo every other day for 12 years. These included smokers as well as former smokers and non-smokers. At the end of the 12 years, however, no significant differences in cancer risk, cardiovascular or mortality risk could be identified. In the beta-nicotine group even fewer men had lung cancer than the placebo group (82 versus 88), which was not statistically significant.

Three years later (1999), a study of nearly 40,000 healthy women – whether smokers or non-smokers – found that dietary supplementation with 50 mg beta-carotene every other day for an average of 2.1 years does not affect the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease even the mortality had.

Problematic: The long-term use of carotenoids in pill form

But in 2009, another study with a negative outcome emerged: researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill found that the long-term use (up to 10 years) of beta-carotene supplements and other carotenoids or vitamins was based on data from more than 77,000 participants -A-containing supplements (retinol and lutein) may increase lung cancer risk, especially in smokers. The study knowledge appeared in the American Journal of Epidemiology.

 

The scientists were able to observe that the longer they took the supplements, the higher the risk of lung cancer from smokers. The dose of supplements was secondary, even mediocre doses increased the risk of long-term supplementation.

Whether taking these supplements increases the risk of lung cancer in non-smokers was not apparent, since hardly any of the non-smokers became ill with lung cancer.

Dr. Jessie Satia, Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health said:

“We believe that the antioxidant beta-carotene at too high a dose has oxidative effects, which then increases the risk of cancer.”

High-carotenoids from carotenoids reduce the risk of lung cancer

More recently, it has been sensible to focus increasingly on the effects of a carotenoid-rich diet rich in vegetables. For example, in Cancer Science in 2014, a study of over 10,000 participants found that high carotenoid levels in the blood (alpha carotene and betacryptoxanthin) were significantly associated with a lower risk of lung cancer death.

Smokers’ lung cancer risk also decreased significantly by 46 percent for high levels of alpha carotene and 61 percent for high levels of beta-cryptoxanthin.

Even more recent is the study from the University of Montreal / Canada Research Center in 2017. Here, too, increased intake of carotenoid-rich vegetables has been shown to protect against lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) – including heavy smokers.

Conclusion: Vegetables protect against lung cancer, carotenoid pills do not do this

Isolated beta-carotene and vitamin A supplements should not be taken by smokers for an extended period of time. In non-smokers, however, they have no harmful effect.

A carotenoid-rich diet consisting of plenty of carrots, squash, peppers, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, herbs (parsley, dill, etc.), kale, spinach, and other green leafy vegetables should be practiced by everyone, as it has been shown to reduce the risk of lung cancer although both non-smokers and smokers (including heavy smokers).

Note: For the sake of completeness, we would like to point out that in a carotenoid-rich diet no vitamin A overdose is to be feared, no matter how many carrots you like to eat. Although some carotenoids can be converted to vitamin A in the body, they can only be produced in the amount required by the body.

It would be quite different if you take cod liver oil or like to eat liver, both of which are very rich in vitamin A. Here, a vitamin A overdose is possible, which should be avoided at all costs – especially in pregnancy, as it can lead to malformations and brain damage in the embryo.

Fluid in the Lungs – Causes and Treatment

Fluid in the lungs is a broad term to describe two possible states that can give characteristic symptoms, such as a bubbling noise in the lungs (rattling) when breathing. Fluid accumulation may be in the lungs (pulmonary edema) or outside the lungs (pleural effusion), in the space between the lungs and the chest wall. The term fluid in the lungs is also used in the lungs to refer to mucus. Mucus or phlegm is really a thick, sticky secretion even though lung water is a thin fluid. Other fluid accumulation can be the result of blood or pus.

The lungs enter the thorax (chest) and lie on either side of the heart. Air travels through the air passages that surround the nose, throat (neck), trachea (trachea) and bronchi. The lung tissue is made up of small air sacs, known as alveoli, which is thin and surrounded by blood capillaries. The structure of the respiratory system allows an exchange of gases, so that essential oxygen is taken into the body and waste products, along with gases, are excreted by the exhaled air. The lung is enclosed in an airtight pleural cavity, with a small pleural space separating the lungs from the chest wall. This cavity is lined by the pleural lining, which also creates a small pleural fluid to reduce the friction between the chest wall and lungs while breathing.

Fluid in the lungs

The most common cause of fluid in the lungs is mucus or mucous produced by the lining of the airways. The airway is lined with a mucous membrane that produces a specialized tissue that produces smucus. This mucus lubricates the lining, which can dry out due to the movement of air and out of the channels as well as stopping dust or microorganisms in the air. However, under certain conditions, the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract can generate excessive amounts of mucus and this can slowly sink down the air ducts until it settles in the lungs. The cough reflex or even spontaneous coughing will usually expel most mucus through the mouth (sputum), but in cases of excessive mucus production, obstructive airway disease or diminished cough, the build up of mucus will quickly settle in the lungs.

Lung water or water in the lungs usually results from the interstitial fluid or blood plasma and may be an indication of a serious underlying condition, usually cardiovascular disease. This fluid in the lungs is known as pulmonary edema and may be accompanied by shortness of breath or shortness of breath (dyspnoea), a feeling of suffocation, anxiety and restlessness. Abnormal breathing sounds are also present, especially crackling. Pulmonary edema could be considered a medical emergency and really immediate medical intervention is necessary.

Blood can also fill in the lungs, but this usually happens as a result of severe trauma and the cause is evident, as in a shot or puncture wound. In most trauma cases, where blood can fill the lungs, the lungs collapse and the blood in the lungs collects in the chest cavity (hematothorax). Infections such as tuberculosis (TB) or lung cancer can also lead to blood accumulation in the lungs. Depending on the severity of the trauma, blood in the lungs will cause drowning and requires immediate medical attention. Pus can also occur in the lungs due to a lung abscess and also requires immediate urgent medical attention.

Causes of the fluid inside the lung
    • Bronchitis is the most common cause of mucus in the lungs and is often characterized by persistent cough. This respiratory disease can develop after the common cold or flu (seasonal influenza). often as a result of a secondary bacterial infection, but may also be more chronic and non-infectious as in the case of smokers.
    • Infections may cause hypersecretion of mucus in the respiratory tract and / or pulmonary edema and this includes viral (eg H1N1 swine flu, SARS severe acute respiratory distress syndrome), bacteria (eg tuberculosis, streptococci or pneumococcal pneumonia), fungi (eg histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, candidiasis) and parasitic (example toxoplasmosis) infectious agents.
    • Pneumonia can also cause lung water or fluid with a thinner viscosity. This can only occur on the affected lung lobe due to inflammation of the lung tissue. Pneumonia is not only caused by infection, but may be due to gastric contents being aspirated from the stomach into the lungs.
    • Allergy symptoms typically lead to increased mucus production, however, in specific acute cases there might be pulmonary edema. Retronasal can often cause phlegm collection in the lungs and allergies can cause inflammation of the bronchi and mucus in the chest of the asthmatic.
    • Near drowning results in fluid in the lungs and even if all the fluid is drained from the lungs, it is important to monitor the patient in the hospital to prevent dry drowning.
    • Many cardiovascular conditions may cause pulmonary edema, including hypertension (high blood pressure), myocardial infarction (heart attack), valvular heart disease or cardiomyopathy (damaged heart muscle).
    • Hypoalbuminemia can be caused by kidney failure, liver disease, malnutrition or protein enteropathy.
    • Kidney failure pulmonary edema, as the kidneys may not be able to filter out toxins in the blood.
    • Smoke inhalation can cause severe inflammation of the lung tissue, which leads to fluid accumulation in the lungs.
    • Lymphatic insufficiency lead to inadequate drainage of lymphatic fluid.
    • Side effects of drugs in a pulmonary edema may result and this includes OTC (over-the-counter) or prescription drugs. Narcotics or anesthetics. This may also occur after the application of the drug, when the effect of the drug appear to have worn out.
    • Inhalation, Ingestion or Injection Toxins or toxins may increase the permeability of the vessel walls, resulting in pulmonary edema. Some toxins can also increase mucus production in the lining of the lungs.
    • Autoimmune diseases such as sarcoidosis can cause fluid in the lungs due to the inflammation of the lung tissue.
    • The lack of oxygen due to high altitude can cause pulmonary edema, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and suffocation.

fluid-in-the-lungs

Fluid outside the lungs

Pleural effusion is when the fluid around the lungs accumulates in the pleural space. Blood (hematothorax), fatty lymph fluid (chylothorax) or pus (empyema) can also fill the pleural space, although this occurs less frequently. Any fluid accumulation in the lungs should be taken seriously and require immediate medical attention. The fluid accumulation in the lungs compressing the lungs and this prevents normal breathing, which results in inadequate gas exchange. The types and causes of pleural effusions are discussed extensively with fluid in the lungs.

Some causes of fluid around the lung

    • Congestive heart failure is probably the most typical brings about of pleural effusion. This fluid is thicker (transudative) due to protein that is forced out of the blood vessels and into the pleural space.
    • Exudative effusion is an aqueous fluid accumulation due to inflammation caused by lung cancer such as pleural mesothelioma infections such as TB or pneumonia. Lung diseases such as asbestosis or drug reactions.
    • Hematothorax may be unusual in that a result of trauma or rupture of the large blood vessels in the case of an aortic aneurysm although the latter is caused by a pleural effusion.
    • Empyema is often due to the accumulation of pus in the pleural space to a lung abscess.
    • Chylothorax is the accumulation of lymph fluid, which has a high concentration of fat, and occurs in certain cancers, such as lymphoma.
    • Some of the causes of lung fluid accumulation can also cause pleural effusion, including kidney failure and liver disease.
The diagnosis of fluid in the lungs

During physical examination, your doctor will be able to identify unusual sounds, such as bubbling or crackling (rattling) with a stethoscope on your breathing. A whistling sound (Stridor) as well as clearly audible when you exhale. Percussion is a knocking motion done against the chest wall and will help your doctor identify with areas of the lungs that might be affected. Typically fluid accumulation causes a muffled sound compared to the normal hollow sound of the air filled lungs. Based on clinical findings and other signs and symptoms, your doctor may request further diagnostic tests that may include the following steps.

    • X-ray of the thorax is one of the most important diagnostic examinations performed to identify the severity and region that is affected. For further imaging, a thorax CT scan or chest ultrasound can be performed.
    • Due to the frequency of cardiovascular in the lungs fluid-related disorders, your doctor may perform an ECG (electrocardiogram), ultrasound of the heart (echocardiography) and other cardiac examinations.
    • Fluid may be aspirated from the pleural cavity, known as thoracocentesis, but this has been done carefully to prevent pneumothorax (accumulation of air into the pleural cavity). A pleural fluid analysis is then performed to identify the type of exudate or any microorganisms.
    • Sputum culture may be necessary to identify the cause of the infection.
    • Number of blood tests can be requested from your doctor to check kidney and liver function, proper gas exchange and heart disease.
The treatment of fluid in the lungs

Treatment depends on the cause of the fluid in the lungs. Some of the treatment options may include:

    • Antibiotics, antiviral or antifungals may be required in the event of infection.
    • Diuretics assist with additional fluid passing, but should be used cautiously in the case of heart disease.
    • Antihistamines may require allergic reactions, and these must be continued on a chronic basis to prevent exacerbations.
    • Corticosteroids can be useful for controlling inflammation and mucus production, as in asthma, and this can be used over the long term to prevent acute attacks.
    • Chest tube with a tube may be necessary for a empyema or a therapeutic pleural function, required for a pleural effusion.
    • Antihypertensives can be given in cases of hypertension.
    • Oxygen is administered in serious cases of fluid within the lungs, in which appropriate gas exchange is impaired. While this does not immediately treat the cause of the fluid in the lungs, except in a lack of oxygen, it helps with adequate gas exchange.
    • Physiotherapy could possibly be important to help with mucus drainage.

Lungs, Pneumonia and Respiratory Diseases

Anyone who is healthy breathes automatically – without thinking about what the lungs do. Some even blame the vital organ for exertions such as smoking. This can lead to mortal danger in diseases of the lungs and respiratory tract.

The human lungs: every day in adults, around 10 000 liters of air flow through.

Without realizing it, adult, healthy people breathe at rest about 12 to 16 times a minute. Each time, about half a liter of air flows through the airways into the lungs and out again.

Construction and location

Physicians refer to all parts of the body, which are traversed by the inhalation and exhalation of air as airways: Through the mouth and nose, the air passes through the throat into the trachea. The trachea lies behind the breastbone and divides in the thorax into a left and a right main bronchus. These lead together with the respective pulmonary vessels to the left or right lung.

The lung (Latin: Pulmo) is in fact paired. Each of the two lungs is supplied with its own blood vessels and, with the respective main bronchus, also has its own air supply, which enters the lungs together with the veins and arteries at the so-called pulmonary hilum. The left lung is slightly smaller than the right and consists of only two instead of three lobes, because in its vicinity the heart is located and thus less space available. Each main bronchus divides according to the number of lung lobes in so-called lobe bronchi and then branches out into Segementbronchien and ever smaller bronchi and bronchioli until at the end of the small alveoli, the so-called alveoli.

respiratory-diseases

They are the place where the lung performs its most important function, the gas exchange, giving the lung tissue its spongy appearance.

What is the job of the lungs and respiratory system?

The airways not only carry air into the lungs, cilia on their walls also purify the air. Foreign matter such as bacteria and dust particles remain hanging in it and are transported along with the lying on the cilia on the pharynx throat direction. He is either swallowed unnoticed or – for example, if the cilia are unable to afford the transport – coughed off.

The most important task of the lung is the gas exchange. Since our body needs a lot of oxygen and has to excrete corresponding amounts of carbon dioxide, a large area is necessary for this. These provide the alveoli. They have very thin walls that almost directly border the blood vessels. This makes it possible for the oxygen from the respiratory air to pass through these walls into the oxygen-poor blood of the pulmonary vessels, while the carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli.

Pulmonary and respiratory diseases

If the lungs become infected, it can hinder breathing and even have life-threatening consequences. It is not for nothing that lung and bronchial cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and pneumonia are among the ten leading causes of death in Germany. One of the most important risk factors for lung disease is smoking. Because tobacco smoke not only favors the development of malignant diseases such as lung cancer, but also damages, among other things, the cilia, which transport phlegm and pathogens outside. This increases the risk of infection. Certain lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are very often the result of many years of smoking. If you want to do something good for your lungs, then you should do without cigarettes and similar tobacco products.

Natural Plant Matter Reduces Lung Cancer Risk

A vegetable dye appears to have the potential to protect passive smokers from tobacco-related lung cancer, according to a November 2016 study. The substance is found in oranges, red peppers, squash and many other fruits and vegetables. It’s called beta-cryptoxanthin and it can reduce the number of receptors that nicotine docks to in order to accelerate tumor growth. This tip is particularly valuable for passive smokers, because they do not want to – in contrast to smokers – expose this additional cancer risk factor.

Substance in fruits and vegetables protects the lungs from cancer

Nicotine is the addictive substance in tobacco and some e-cigarette liquids. It protects cancer cells, ensuring that they really blossom. To do this, he docks on to their receptors and in this way encourages them to grow more.

Dr. Xiang-Dong Wang is a cancer researcher at Tufts University in Boston. Since 2004 he has been researching carotenoids, the dyes that give color to many yellow and red fruits. Wang tries to find out why these substances can prevent so many chronic diseases. In particular, the carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin is the focus of his investigations. The substance is in z. In the following foods:

    • oranges
    • tangerines
    • pumpkins
    • Red peppers
    • in many other orange, yellow and red fruits and vegetables
    • and also in green leafy vegetables, where the dye is covered by green chlorophyll

The current study by Dr. med. Wang and team were published in the journal Cancer Prevention Research and described how beta-cryptoxanthin (BCX) reduces the number of nicotine receptors, thus reducing the motivating influence of nicotine on lung cancer cells.

reduces-lung-cancer-risk

Lung cancer-the most dangerous type of cancer

Dr. Wang says the new research shows how well eating fruits and vegetables can reduce the lung cancer risk of (passive) smokers.

Lung cancer is the type of cancer that causes the highest mortality each year. In Germany, nearly 50,000 people get lung cancer each year. There are over 220,000 new lung cancer diagnoses annually in the US, and over 150,000 people die of it.

Smoking is considered one of the major risk factors for lung cancer. According to the American Lung Association, a man can increase his lung cancer risk 23fold if he smokes. In contrast, a smoker has a “only” 13 times higher lung cancer risk than non-smokers.

However, it is particularly bad that passive smoking alone in the US alone causes over 7,000 deaths each year. Here people have to suffer and die because other people smoke ruthlessly in their presence.

Nicotine accelerates tumor growth

Tobacco smoke contains 7,000 components, many of which are carcinogens that can cause severe damage to the cells of the lungs and bronchial mucosa. So far, nicotine has not been considered a direct cause of lung cancer. However, studies have since shown that the addictive substance can accelerate the growth of lung tumors. Nicotine is therefore even very heavily involved in the development of lung cancer.

For example, in 2013, Warren and Singh wrote in the Journal of Carcinogenesis that it has long been known how badly lung cancer therapies work if the patient continues to smoke. The reason for this is that nicotine and its metabolites accelerate tumor growth in many different ways. For example, angiogenesis is promoted (formation of blood vessels to the tumor, so that it is better supplied with nutrients), the resistance of the tumor to therapies and also directly to the metastasis.

Nicotine causes a strengthening of the cancer

Wang and colleagues have now discovered that nicotine binds to the receptors on the lung surface, leading directly to a signal cascade, which in turn results in rapid cell division of cancer cells and the formation of new blood vessels for tumor delivery (angiogenesis).

Not only that, nicotine can also increase the number of these receptors – and the more nicotine receptors there are, the better the cancerous effect of nicotine. However, as Wang and his team believe, BCX appears to be effective in reducing the number of these receptors, which could now also lead to shrinkage of the tumor.

The more carotenoids (passive) smokers eat, the better they are protected

In earlier studies, Wang’s team had discovered a link between the frequent consumption of BCX-rich foods and a lower lung cancer risk in humans. In animal studies, the suspicion confirmed: who received BCX, experienced a shrinkage of his lung tumors by 52 to 63 percent. BCX levels that are similar in humans to one red pepper or two tangerines per day have been effective.

Cell experiments were also performed. It also showed that the cells scatter less frequently in the presence of BCX than without BCX. Who is damned – for whatever reason – to passive smokers, should absolutely eat as healthy as possible, taking care to eat as many carotenoid-rich foods daily as possible.

Lung Cleansing – The Drink To Detoxify

Anyone who suffers from a lung disease, who once smoked or who had to passively smoke, should select his food targeted. Because with a certain diet, the lung health can be very well influenced. It provides the nutrients and nutrients that help the lungs cleanse and regenerate. At the same time, a lung-friendly diet is free of components that could damage the lungs or hinder their recovery. The daily drink for lung cleansing is an important component in a lung-friendly diet.

The daily drink for healthy lungs

Numerous environmental impacts make the lungs, but also the usual bad habits, especially smoking and passive smoking. Medical advances have not led to any changes in the area of ​​lung diseases. The situation is no different today than it was a hundred years ago.

Of course, a corresponding genetic predisposition or living conditions in childhood contribute to the development of lung diseases. However, your own way of life and diet also significantly affects the condition of your lungs.

The healthier you feed, the better your lungs are, the better they can protect themselves from harmful influences and the better they can recover and recover. Support your body so it can break down diseased lung tissue and build healthy lung tissue!

We present a drink that is presented on the net as a “drink for lung cleansing”. It is an excellent introduction to a healthy diet and can be drunk daily. Of course, this drink not only benefits the lungs, but – as usual in naturopathic measures – the entire organism.

lung-cleansing-the-drink-to-detoxify

Three main ingredients

The three main ingredients of the lung cleansing drink are turmeric, ginger and onions. All three have outstanding properties and are extremely positive for both lung health and general health. Each of the three foods is a health gain in itself. However, if they are combined with each other, their effect seems to multiply especially for the lungs.

Turmeric

Turmeric has long since become a kind of all-round agent. There is hardly a health problem that turmeric would not have a positive effect on. The radiant yellow root of the Southeast Asian region has such numerous health benefits that the enumeration of its characteristics would fill the book. For example, it has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifying, digestive, blood-thinning, cholesterol-lowering, antiviral, antibacterial and anti-cancer effects. Of course, most of these properties also greatly improve lung health.

Even with the treatment of tuberculosis – a bacterial lung disease – turmeric or curcumin can be helpful. The yellow substance activates the body’s defense so well that the causative bacteria can be fought faster.

Ginger

Ginger is usually taken with a nervous stomach, as it protects the stomach lining, fights nausea and can prevent stomach ulcers. In addition, the ginger has a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. Especially the lungs are daily exposed to a continuous rush of harmful substances from the breathing air. The ginger can counteract the resulting free radicals and inflammatory processes.

Its sharpness also helps with the elimination of mucus and pollutants from the lungs. Since it has a relaxing effect on the bronchial muscles, it is also a helpful measure for asthma.

Onions

The specific plant substances of onions (eg quercetin) have such a positive effect on lung health that in the English-speaking world it means “on onion a day preservation cancer away” – one onion per day keeps lung cancer away.

A study by the University of Hawaii found that more than 1000 people (half were healthy, the other half suffering from lung cancer), that although smoking was the main reason for the development of lung cancer, but also the increased consumption of onions (also of grapefruit and apples) could protect against lung cancer. The more onions a person had in their diet, the less likely they were to be found among the lung cancer patients. Already 20g of onions per day halved the lung cancer risk.

The Recipe

In addition to the three main ingredients mentioned, you only need water and a sweetener of your choice for the lung cleansing drink. First, make a kind of syrup, which is stored in the refrigerator. Of these, take now twice daily two tablespoons, preferably two hours before or after a meal, for. B. in the morning and in the evening.

Ingredients:

    • 2 tbsp turmeric powder or 2.5 tbsp freshly grated turmeric root
    • 400 g of onions chopped
    • 1 thumb-sized piece of ginger grated
    • 400 g honey, maple syrup, molasses, yacon syrup, rice syrup or similar
    • 1 liter of water

Note: Since some active ingredients – especially turmeric – are fat-soluble, we recommend adding 1 tbsp of coconut oil to the mixture (or another oil of your choice). Even pepper should the bioavailability of z. For example, add curcumin (a turmeric ingredient) so that you can add ¼ tsp of black pepper. The original recipe of the drink, however, does without these two ingredients.

Preparation:

    • Stir the honey or syrup into the water and let it boil.
    • Put the ginger and onions in the boiling water
    • Add turmeric (as well as fat and pepper) and reduce heat to medium.
    • Simmer the mixture until it has shrunk by half in volume.
    • Pour the mixture through a fine sieve into a sealable glass jar and allow to cool to room temperature.
    • Put your lung cleansing drink, which now looks more like a syrup, in the fridge.
Other forms of application are possible

The recipe for the lung cleansing drink was created to make daily intake of the three ingredients as easy as possible. You can also take turmeric, ginger and onions in other ways without any problem – even in raw form.

While there are usually no questions about using onions, cooking with ginger and turmeric is not that common. Ginger, for example, can be wonderfully grated in fruit salads (or vegetable dishes), or you simply mix a piece of ginger in hot water and drink the resulting “tea” without first sifting.

Since there are studies on turmeric that show that some of the active ingredients in cooked form gain bioavailability, you could take turns here and use turmeric sometimes raw, sometimes in cooked foods.