Energy Balance And Energy Requirements

Accordingly, a negative energy balance should be created to reduce body weight, i. H. the energy consumed must be higher than the supplied energy. By means of an energy balance calculation, the daily energy requirement can be determined. This consists of the basal metabolic rate, the work turnover, the leisure time turnover, and compensation for digestive losses.


The metabolic rate of a person is dependent on his weight and gender. Women have a 10 percent lower basal metabolic rate. It represents the energy needed to maintain all vital functions in peace. In men, the basal metabolic rate is 1.0 kcal/kg body weight per hour. In women 0.9 kcal / kg.

Labor Turnover

Work turnover is the amount of energy needed for physical work (occupation). For the work turnover flat rates are added to the basal metabolic rate, since an exact determination is only possible under laboratory-like conditions. For purely sedentary activity, the work turnover corresponds to about 20 percent of the basal metabolic rate. Slightly active, sedentary, or standing activity with occasional walking accounts for 30 percent of the basal metabolic rate. Housework, gardening, assembly line work, frequent walking, sitting a little bit correspond to 50 percent of the basal metabolic rate. Auxiliary, loading work, physical education teacher, dancer, etc. must underlie 75 percent of the base turnover and construction workers, miners, and furniture packers 100 percent.

Leisure turnover

The leisure turnover represents the amount of energy that results from activities besides the occupation. In one hour of walking, a person consumes about 2.86 kcal. When running at 9 km/h 9.5 kcal per hour. Cycling at 15 km/h consumes 5.3 kcal per hour and per kilogram of body weight. In addition, when calculating the total energy expenditure, the loss of energy due to incomplete absorption of nutrients from the intestine and heat losses in the metabolism must not be missing. For these two factors, 15% of the daily energy requirement is reckoned with.

Energy Balance And Energy Requirements

Example: A man of 37 years and 88 kilograms of weight exercises a light activity every day for 8 hours. In his free time, he rides an hour by bicycle at a speed of 15 km / h twice a week. His energy balance is calculated as follows:

Basal metabolism: 1.0 kcal x 88 kg x 24 hrs 2112 kcal

Work turnover: Lightweight activity, plus 30 percent 634 kcal

Leisure turnover: 15 km / h cycling (5.3 kcal / kg / h, based on 88 kg and 2 hours) total: 933 kcal, 133 kcal per day

Together: 2879 kcal plus 15 percent supplement: 432 kcal = total energy requirement per day: 3311 kcal

So if he consumed 3311 kcal per day, the energy balance would be theoretically balanced. Often, however, the calculated value is very high and already exceeds the actual energy input.

How many grams of carbs, fat, and protein would that be per day? This can also be calculated very easily. Assuming a 55:30:15 ratio, you get the following numbers:

    • Carbohydrates (55 percent) = 1821 kcal
    • Fat (30 percent) = 993 kcal
    • Protein (15 percent) = 497 kcal

Carbohydrates (55 percent) = 1821 kcal: 4.1 kcal = 444 g fat (30 percent) = 993, due to the fact that carbs and protein each contain 4.1 kcal per gram and fat 9.3 kcal kcal: 9.3 kcal = 107 g protein (15 percent) = 497 kcal: 4.1 kcal = 121 g

This amount of food he should therefore take classical dietary recommendations after daily to maintain his body weight. Condition is, however, with such a high carbohydrate intake a regular exercise. More meaningful in the context of a weight reduction would be a moderate reduction of carbohydrates and an increase in the protein, fruit, and vegetable content. This also takes into account the glycemic load. To see how many calories you consume each day, an analysis of a 3-7 day nutritional protocol is essential.