To determine and timely treatment of gynecological diseases in women often prescribed an analysis of hormones. In this case, the most commonly performed determination of the level of luteinizing hormone, progesterone, prolactin.

Luteinizing hormone (LH) belongs to adrenal hormones synthesized by the anterior pituitary gland. It is this hormone that stimulates the production of estrogens in the female body and regulates the secretion of progesterone and is directly involved in the formation of the yellow body.

Such an analysis for female sex hormones is mandatory if:

  • Decreased libido;
  • amenorrhea;
  • Infertility;
  • endometriosis;
  • Miscarriage;
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome;
  • Sexual Infantilism

Also often associated with such an analysis to determine the effectiveness of hormone therapy.

Like any submission of tests for the definition of female hormones, LH analysis requires preparation. Before taking the test at the level of LH, 72 hours before the procedure, women are advised to completely rule out physical activity and exercise. Blood is only taken on an empty stomach and on the 7th day of the menstrual cycle.

analysis-for-hormones-in-women

Normal indicators of this hormone for women differ and depend on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, in the follicular phase, its concentration is 1.1-11.6 mU/ml, in the ovulation phase – 17-77. In the luteal phase, the concentration level does not exceed 14.7. It should also be noted that the intake of oral contraceptives reduces the level of this hormone to 8.0 mU/ml.

What is an analysis for progesterone?

Among the analyzes for female hormones, most often an analysis is performed to determine the level of progesterone in the blood. It is produced directly by the yellow body and is acutely necessary for the normal course of pregnancy. Progesterone prepares the preparation of the uterine endometrium, with which the fertilized egg can be implanted.

Such a blood test for female hormones may be prescribed if:

  • Violation of the menstrual cycle;
  • Determining the causes of infertility;
  • Assessment of the functional capacity of the placenta in the second trimester of the current pregnancy;
  • Diagnosis of an unbearable pregnancy.

The analysis is performed on the 22nd to 23rd day of menstruation of a woman’s cycle, while direct blood is done in the morning on an empty stomach. In cases where the girl is not tested in the morning, the fence can be done during the day, but not earlier than 6 hours after eating.

the hormone levels are different: 0.32-2.23 nmol/L – in the follicular phase and 6.99-56.63, – of the luteal.

What is the purpose of analyzing prolactin in the body?

The hormone prolactin participates directly in the process of formation and development of the mammary glands and stimulates the production of milk in them during lactation.

Such an analysis will be assigned if:

  • galactorrhea;
  • cyclic pain in the mammary glands;
  • breast disease;
  • Violation of ovulation and its absence;
  • Absence of monthly;
  • Diagnosis of infertility;
  • Injury of lactation after birth;

Before you take the test, the woman should exclude for one-day sexual contacts, as well as thermal influence on an organism (a bath, a sauna). In addition, stress conditions directly affect the level of the hormone prolactin in the blood.

A blood sample will be for 3 hours after the blood-as the woman woke up. Immediately before the procedure, you need to rest for 10-15 minutes in front of the office and calm down. The normal level of prolactin in women is 109-557 mU/l.

Thus, which tests are also performed for female hormones, a preparatory preparation for them is necessary.

 

Vitamins are vital ingredients of the food. They do not provide energy but are indispensable for many metabolic processes.

Vitamins: Detailed

Vitamins are organic substances that the organism needs for certain vital functions, but can not, or only in insufficient quantities, produce itself. Vitamins are thus essential, i. they must be ingested regularly with food. The daily requirement for these micronutrients is low compared to the required amounts of energy-supplying nutrients.

Provitamins are vitamin precursors, which are only converted into the active vitamin in the body.

Requirements and quantity recommendation:

The need for vitamins depends on the individual, his physical and psychological condition (eg illnesses, stress). The information for adequate vitamin intake should take into account: age, gender, level of performance, health status, dietary composition, etc.

vitamins-are-vital-ingredients-of-the-food

The indicated desirable daily intake levels contain a safety margin that exceeds the requirement. The indicated quantities do not have to be recorded daily. On average, however, the supply should correspond to these quantities.

As critical vitamins, i. Vitamins, which are often below the recommended intake, are the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and folic acid in Germany. To detect possible deficiencies in the supply of vitamins, nutrient recommendations are issued, which apply to about 97% of the population.

As you can see in the sometimes very different intake recommendations for vitamins and minerals, there is still no certainty about what quantities the human body needs exactly. The individual needs may vary. For some vitamins, different values ​​apply for women and men, as well as for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Age also influences the nutritional requirements as well as diseases or special burdens.

There are two groups of vitamins:

  • Fat-soluble vitamins:

Vitamins A, D, E and K are included in the group of fat-soluble vitamins. The absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is done together with dietary fats. Excessive vitamins of this group are stored in the body. Man can get by these supplies after a regular and sufficient supply for some time with less intake quantities. The body can only excrete small amounts of these vitamins via the intestine. As a result, overdose is possible. Beware of self-medication!

  • Water-soluble vitamins:

Vitamin C and the Vitamin B Complex (Vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, Niacin (PP), Pantothenic Acid (Coenzyme A), Folic Acid (M), Biotin (H), Rutin (P), Ortoic Acid (B13), Pangametine (B15)) are water-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins can only be stored in small quantities. The body’s storage capacity for these vitamins varies greatly: Vitamin B1: 1-2 weeks, B2, B6, C, and niacin: 2-6 weeks, folic acid: 3-4 months, B12: 3-5 years. [Lit-1] Therefore, they must be supplied to the body regularly in sufficient quantity. Surpluses are excreted via the kidneys (urine). Overdoses are still possible.

 

Biochemical blood test – a method of blood testing, often used in therapy, rheumatology, gastroenterology and other fields of medicine. It is this laboratory analysis that most accurately reflects the health of systems and organs.

Glucose in the blood biochemistry

About a day after you have donated blood, get the results of biochemistry. They indicate the amount of the contents of various substances. It is quite difficult for a person without medical education to independently understand the results of the analysis. But today the interpretation of the analysis of blood biochemistry is always attached in the medical institutions.

biochemistry-of-the-blood-transcript

The sugar content in the blood is the index of carbohydrate metabolism. In the norm of glucose should not be more than 5.5 mmol/l and not less than 3.5 mmol/l. A steady increase in this indicator is most commonly observed when:

  • Cushing’s syndrome;
  • Diabetes;
  • permanent excessive physical exertion;
  • hyperthyroidism;
  • pheochromocytoma;
  • Diseases of the endocrine glands.

If you have a lower glucose level The general biochemistry of the blood, the decoding will indicate that you have an insulin overdose, a deficiency in the function of the endocrine glands or severe poisoning that is accompanied by liver damage.

Pigments in the biochemistry of the blood

In deciphering the blood test for biochemistry the amount of pigments – bilirubin direct and bilirubin total – is given. The standard of total bilirubin is 5-20 μmol/l. A strong change in this indicator is characteristic of various liver diseases (for example, hepatitis and cirrhosis), mechanical jaundice, poisoning, liver cancer, cholelithiasis, and vitamin B12 deficiency.

The norm of direct bilirubin is 0-3.4 μmol/l. If you have blood biochemistry and this indicator is higher, the decryption may indicate that you have the following:

  • Syphilis;
  • toxic or acute viral hepatitis;
  • cholecystitis;
  • infectious liver disease; 

Fats in biochemical blood analysis

If there is a violation of lipid metabolism in the blood, the content of lipids and/or their fractions (cholesterol esters and triglycerides) is increased. The interpretation of these indicators in the results of blood biochemistry assays is very important as they are very important for a correct assessment of the functional ability of the kidney and liver in a variety of diseases. Normally it should be:

  • Total cholesterol – 3.0-6.0 mmol/l;
  • Triglycerides 0.40-2.70 mmol/l (depending on age).

Water and mineral salts in blood biochemistry

There are several inorganic substances: potassium, folic acid, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine. Injuries of water-mineral metabolism of any kind are very commonly observed in severe and mild forms of diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis and heart problems.

Normally, the potassium level should be within 3.5-5.5 mmol/l. If there is an increase in its concentration, then the biochemistry of blood for women and men declares that this is hyperkalemia. This condition is characteristic of hemolysis, acute renal failure, dehydration, and adrenal insufficiency. A strong decrease in potassium content means Hypokalemia. This condition is a sign of impaired renal function, cystic fibrosis, an excess of hormones in the adrenal cortex.

In the analysis of blood biochemistry, the sodium standard is 136-145 mmol/l. An increase in this indicator usually indicates a violation of the function of the adrenal cortex or the pathology of the hypothalamus.

Normally chlorine in the blood ranges from 98-107 mmol/l. If the indicators are larger, the person may have dehydration, salicylate poisoning or adrenocortical dysfunction. However, the decrease in chloride content is observed with vomiting, a significant increase in fluid volume, and excessive sweating.

  1. Arginine

Arginine is an important amino acid that keeps the cells of the intestinal mucosa healthy. A healthy intestinal mucosa is indispensable for a functioning immune defense. In addition, arginine stimulates the thymus gland, which sits behind the breastbone and forms important cells for the immune system, whereby the defense cells are increased and activated. In addition, arginine is also the most important precursor of nitric oxide (NO) in the human body.

Lack of NO often leads to cardiovascular disease. Arginine protects blood vessels by relaxing blood vessels, improving blood circulation, normalizing blood pressure, and counteracting the formation of blood clots. Studies have shown that the formation of NO can be increased by the supply of arginine and thus the vessels are kept healthy. In addition to this positive effect on the cardiovascular system, arginine has other beneficial effects.1 It has a positive effect on wound healing and the formation of collagen.2 Collagen is an important component of skin, bones, tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, and blood vessels teeth.

Amino-Acids-and-Their-Importance-to-The-Immune-System

  1. Glutamine

Glutamine is an amino acid that the body needs for the formation of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells that are responsible for the production of antibodies and thus represent an important part of the immune system. Glutamine is predominantly in the muscle cells. During physical activity, muscle consumes glucose and glutamine. These two substances are then missing the immune system. A weakened immune system can be caused, among other things by a glutamine and glucose deficiency. Recent studies suggest that glutamine is indispensable for the metabolism as well as the structure and function of the intestine.

  1. Glycine

Glycine is the smallest amino acid in the human body and involved in the production of antibodies. Glycine prevents premature cell death. In addition, it is involved in the production of antibodies and therefore very important for a healthy immune system. Together with cysteine ​​and glutamic acid, it forms an antioxidant (radical scavenger). Antioxidants relieve inflammatory processes in the body.4

  1. Cysteine

Cysteine ​​affects the immune system because it supports the maturation of lymphocytes, activates cells that are needed for the immune defense and play a role in the formation of an important antioxidant in the liver.

  1. Folic Acid

Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that is present in foods as folate. 80 to 90% of people in Germany consume less folic acid than recommended. Folic acid is particularly important for women who want to have children and pregnant women because it reduces the risk of miscarriage and can prevent malformations. Folic acid is also important for all people because it participates in cell division, especially in the bone marrow and digestive tract. In addition, folic acid prevents homocysteinemia. Homocysteinemia means that there are too many cell toxins in the blood, which is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  1. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

The term vitamin B6 summarizes several substances that are similar in structure. Vitamin B6 is involved in about 100 enzyme reactions. The reactions are almost all related to the metabolism of the amino acids (protein building blocks). Vitamin B6 is also essential for nerve and brain metabolism and supports the immune system’s defenses.

  1. Cobalamin (vitamin B12)

Vitamin B12 plays a very important role in the whole metabolism and in almost all metabolic processes. It is important as a co-factor of enzymes in the mitochondria (“power plants” of the cells), is important in the defense against infection and for the function of the nervous system.

  1. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant (radical scavenger), i. H. it prevents the oxidation of important molecules. In addition, vitamin C has many important properties that are good for your health. Mainly, vitamin C is involved in the defense against viruses and bacteria by mainly accumulating in the leukocytes (white blood cells) and supports activated T cells (white blood cell group that promotes the immune system).

  1. Calcium

Calcium is a mineral that is involved in many important processes in the body. It stabilizes and strengthens bones and teeth. Calcium is also very important for the nerves and muscles as it controls the tension and irritation. Calcium also plays an important role in blood clotting and cells.

  1. Zinc

Zinc is an indispensable (essential) trace element. It is part of many enzymes and is important for sugar, fat and protein metabolism. In addition, it is involved in the structure of the genetic material and cell growth. Zinc is needed for many important processes in the body, such as growth, regeneration and the immune system. Zinc cannot be stored in the body and therefore needs to be applied daily. Zinc deficiency can be manifested by brittle nails, a weak immune system, anemia and growth disorders. 

  1. Selenium

Selenium is also an indispensable (essential) trace element. It plays an important role as a radical scavenger and is involved in the growth processes of almost all cells of the body. It forms antibodies and is therefore important for the immune defense. Selenium is also involved in various metabolic processes. Various studies have shown that the use of selenium reduces the risk of lung, prostate and colon cancer.

The figures published by the IDF (International Diabetes Federation) at the end of 2006 speak for themselves: instead of the previously estimated 30 million, 246 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes.

Scientists forecast a diabetic share of 12 percent for Germany by the year 2010. The question is, who should and can still pay for it? Already today, the treatment and follow-up cost amount to up to 27 billion euros, according to the German Diabetic Confederation.

Almost all of us could easily prevent this “widespread disease”: weight reduction, sufficient physical activity, healthy food rich in vital substances with a low glycemic index – preferably vegetarian. In addition, a good micronutrient supply has a very high priority: both in prevention and in existing insulin resistance and even more so in diagnosed diabetes mellitus type-2.

Micronutrient-Therapy-For-Type-2-Diabetes-Mellitus

 

Diabetes mellitus type-2 has numerous threatening consequences, which can be prevented or at least mitigated with sufficient availability of micronutrients. In addition, diabetics have found a greater need for micronutrients and simultaneously lower blood levels.

In diabetics, the formation of free radicals is particularly pronounced. This is also evident in the sequelae, which can take a very dramatic course:

Nervous dysfunction, kidney disease, visual disturbances (cataracts) are not uncommon; at worst, blindness or amputations of the limbs may occur. Pathological changes in the blood vessels (micro- and macroangiopathy) can be the trigger for stroke and heart attack.

A preventive and good supply of antioxidant agents such as vitamin C, E, selenium, zinc, cysteine, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, and other vital substances can counteract these secondary diseases.

Not only do micronutrients have the function of protecting against free radicals, they also help the diabetic to keep his blood vessels elastic, intact, and functional. Here is the amino acid arginine to mention. It causes dilation of the blood vessels and has a hypotensive effect.

Bringing blood sugar regulation back into balance is the key to existing insulin resistance. Orthomolecular medicine can be an important element in achieving this goal: Chromium and biotin are able to positively influence glucose metabolism; also deficiencies of zinc, copper, and manganese are associated with glucose intolerance.

In summary, orthomolecular medicine in diabetes mellitus is a useful therapeutic approach and can make a significant contribution to relieving the symptoms. The sooner, the better and more effective.

Minerals are components of inorganic food that cannot be produced by the body itself. Minerals are essential (vital) components of all living cells and are involved in the metabolism.

Minerals: Detailed

The proportion of minerals in the human body is about 4% of body weight.

Minerals are differentiated according to the amount in which they occur in the body. Volume elements are minerals that are contained in the human body at more than 50 mg per kg of body weight. Trace elements are minerals that make up less than 50 mg per kg of body weight. The quantity elements are often referred to as minerals (as on this page) also in contrast to the trace elements.

Humans need minerals for many functions, eg. As for the build-up of body substance (bones, muscles) and the maintenance of enzyme activities.

Minerals-Quantity-Elements

Purpose of minerals in the body:

  • Minerals are part of the skeleton and teeth. They give the bones the strength.
  • Minerals affect in dissolved form, as electrolytes, vital properties of body fluids, eg. B. Maintenance of osmotic pressure.
  • Minerals are essential components of organic compounds in the body. Iodine is part of the thyroid hormone, cobalt of vitamin B12, iron of hemoglobin, etc.

Minerals in food:

How high the mineral content of various foods depends not least on how many minerals contained the soil on which the plant grew or what the animal got to eat. It should also be noted that some nutrients may have a beneficial or inhibiting effect on mineral intake.

Hormones are substances that are produced by endocrine glands (thyroid, pancreas, gonads, pituitary, etc.) and participate in all processes in the body. These bioactive compounds determine the processes of growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, the appearance of a person, their character and their behavior depend on them.

The produced hormones go into the blood, where they are in certain concentrations and equilibrium with each other. Anomalies affect health and can lead to the defeat of various organs and systems. And it’s important not just the concentration of a hormone, but also its relationship to other types of hormones.

When is the blood test prescribed for hormones?

The blood test to determine the level of certain hormones and the hormonal background as a whole can be prescribed by almost any specialist:

  • Endocrinologist;
  • gynecologist;
  • A neuropathologist;
  • gastroenterologist;
  • Oncologist, etc.

This procedure allows you to identify a large number of different pathologies, even in the early stages prior to the manifestation of clinical signs.

The reason for this analysis may be suspected dysfunction of the glands of internal secretion or an increase in the size of the glands (eg, after ultrasound). Frequently check the number of hormones required if:

  • Acne;
  • Baldness;
  • increase in weight

A repeat study can be assigned to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.

blood-test-for-hormones

Preparing for the analysis of blood for hormones

To obtain high quality and reliable results should follow the recommendations set forth below for the analysis of blood for all hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), sex, adrenals, thyroid, etc.):

  1. Two weeks prior to the study, all medications should be discontinued (except those whose receipt was agreed with the physician prior to analysis).
  2. Three days before the test you should stop using alcohol.
  3. 3-5 days before analysis, it is best to eat fatty, spicy and fried foods.
  4. 3 days before the analysis you have to give up playing sports and not allow a heavy physical effort.
  5. You can not smoke on the day of the study.
  6. Since the blood donation is done on an empty stomach for analysis, you should not eat 12 hours before the procedure (sometimes only clean water without gas is allowed).
  7. Immediately before the procedure, you should rest within 10-15 minutes, so as not to worry.

As the hormone level in women of the menstrual cycle, it is better to take the test for 5-7 days after the onset of menstruation. If you are planning to analyze the level of the hormone progesterone, it should be done on the 19-21 day of the cycle. Before performing a blood test for sex hormones, do not recommend gynecological examination, palpation of the mammary glands.

Decrypt the blood test for hormones

Decrypting the blood test for hormones can only be done by a qualified specialist who bases each patient on an individual approach, taking into account the characteristics of the organism, existing diseases, current therapy, and many other factors. It should be noted that the standards for the analysis of blood for hormones in different laboratories are different. This is due to the fact that different methods, equipment, reagents, holding time etc. can be used in the study. Therefore, if you need to conduct repeated analyzes, you should contact the same institution as you did for the first time, and in deciphering you should follow the standards used.